Unraveling the Mystery: Understanding the Causes of Dry Eyes – Dr. Zuhal Butuner

Unraveling the Mystery: Understanding the Causes of Dry Eyes

Dry eyes, a common and often uncomfortable condition, occur when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including irritation, burning sensation, redness, and blurred vision. While occasional dry eyes can be a result of environmental factors or temporary conditions, chronic dry eyes may have underlying causes that require attention and treatment. In this article, Dr. Zuhal Butuner delves into the potential causes of dry eyes and explore ways to manage and alleviate this bothersome condition.

1. Age and Hormonal Changes

As we age, our bodies undergo various changes, and our eyes are no exception. The aging process can affect tear production and the composition of tears, leading to dry eyes. Additionally, hormonal changes, such as those occurring during menopause in women, can contribute to the development of dry eyes.

2. Environmental Factors

Environmental conditions can play a significant role in causing or exacerbating dry eyes. Dry and windy climates, air conditioning, heating systems, and exposure to smoke or pollutants can all contribute to increased evaporation of tears, leading to dry eyes.

3. Digital Eye Strain

The increased use of digital devices, such as computers, smartphones, and tablets, can lead to digital eye strain, which may result in dry eyes. When we focus on screens for extended periods, we tend to blink less frequently, reducing tear distribution across the eyes.

4. Medications

Certain medications have been associated with causing dry eyes as a side effect. These may include antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, and some medications for high blood pressure. If you are experiencing dry eyes and are taking any medications, consult with your healthcare provider to explore possible alternatives.

5. Medical Conditions

Various medical conditions can contribute to the development of dry eyes. Autoimmune disorders, such as Sj√∂gren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus, can affect the body’s ability to produce tears, leading to dry eyes. Diabetes, thyroid disorders, and vitamin A deficiency are also linked to dry eye symptoms.

6. Eyelid Problems

Issues with the eyelids, such as eyelid inflammation (blepharitis) or incomplete closure of the eyelids during sleep (nocturnal lagophthalmos), can cause decreased tear production and increased tear evaporation, resulting in dry eyes.

7. Contact Lens Wear

Wearing contact lenses for extended periods or using lenses that do not suit your eyes can contribute to dry eyes. Contact lenses can disrupt the tear film and lead to increased evaporation.

8. Eye Surgery

Certain eye surgeries, such as LASIK and other refractive procedures, can cause temporary dry eyes as a side effect of the surgery. In most cases, the dryness improves over time as the eyes heal.

Management and Treatment

The treatment and management of dry eyes depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In many cases, simple lifestyle changes and self-care measures can provide relief:

  1. Frequent Blinking: Make a conscious effort to blink more often, especially when using digital devices or in dry environments.
  2. Artificial Tears: Over-the-counter artificial tear drops or gels can help lubricate the eyes and relieve dryness. There are various types of artificial tears, so consult with an eye care professional to find the one that suits your needs best.
  3. Hydration: Stay well-hydrated by drinking enough water throughout the day, as dehydration can contribute to dry eyes.
  4. Humidify the Environment: Use a humidifier to add moisture to the air, especially during dry seasons or in air-conditioned/heated rooms.
  5. Proper Contact Lens Use: If you wear contact lenses, follow your eye care provider’s instructions for proper lens care and consider using silicone hydrogel lenses, which are more comfortable for some wearers.
  6. Prescription Medications: In cases of chronic dry eyes, your eye care provider may prescribe medications to increase tear production or reduce inflammation.
  7. Nutritional Supplements: Omega-3 fatty acid supplements may help improve the quality of tears and reduce dry eye symptoms.


Dry eyes can be a bothersome and uncomfortable condition, but understanding its potential causes can lead to effective management and relief. Identifying and addressing the underlying factors can improve the quality of life for those affected by dry eyes. Regular eye exams and consultations with an eye care professional are essential for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. By taking proactive measures and making necessary lifestyle adjustments, individuals can find comfort and relief from dry eyes, allowing them to enjoy clearer and more comfortable vision.

Author: Jill T Frey